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机器人将淘汰哪些工作 Work survival in the era of automation

时间:2024-02-09 04:29:01 来源:金沙集团在线网址 点击:

本文摘要:Roy Harold Scherer Jr worked as a truck driver on the long haul to the top of his chosen profession. He later found film stardom under the name of Rock Hudson. Michael Dell, founder of US company Dell Computers, washed plates and was a wai


Roy Harold Scherer Jr worked as a truck driver on the long haul to the top of his chosen profession. He later found film stardom under the name of Rock Hudson. Michael Dell, founder of US company Dell Computers, washed plates and was a waiter in Chinese and Mexican restaurants before he landed on a career in technology. 当过卡车司机的小罗伊哈罗德谢勒(Roy Harold Scherer Jr),经过长年努力奋斗,最后攀上了自己自由选择的职业的巅峰。他化名罗克赫德森(Rock Hudson),沦为家喻户晓的电影明星。美国计算机公司戴尔(Dell)创始人迈克尔戴尔(Michael Dell)在步入科技业之前,曾在中餐馆和墨西哥餐厅浸过盘子、当过服务生。Such humdrum tasks once allowed ambitious people to earn cash en route to the top. For others, they were full-time jobs. But such low and semi-skilled jobs are increasingly in danger of being wiped out by the coming robotics age. Dish washing has long been automated and truck driving may be consigned to the rear-view mirror when driverless vehicles hit the streets. 这些枯燥乏味的工作,曾多次使那些雄心勃勃的年轻人在顺利之前以求赚糊口。


浸盘子很幸之前就构建了自动化,而等到无人驾驶汽车大量上市之时,卡车司机的工作有可能也不会被历史出局。This month’s Connected Business asks what workers will need to do to make their careers robot proof. But it is open to debate what this technological revolution will mean, especially for employers and workers in sectors requiring what are seen as a lower order of skills. FT英文网站(ft.com)本月出版发行的特别报道《网络商业》(Connected Business)明确提出了一个问题:劳动者必须做到什么,才能让自己的职业不被机器人代替?但当下的科技革命意味著什么——特别是在是对那些被指出只需较低阶技能的行业里的雇员和工人而言——仍有辩论的余地。

Tourism, traditionally viewed as a provider of low-paid, part-time, customer-facing jobs, is one industry experimenting with robots in human roles, such as receptionists. 传统上被视作获取低薪、全职、面向客户工作的旅游业,正在尝试利用机器人代替人工岗位,比如前台接待员。Stephen Page, a professor of tourism management at Bournemouth university in the UK, says wide adoption of robots will depend on how and where in the world they are used. A survey by TravelZoo, an online media company, found regional variations in human acceptance of robots. Chinese tourists were the most comfortable with the idea of their use in travel, French and Germans were the least at ease. 英国伯恩茅斯大学(Bournemouth university)旅游管理专业教授斯蒂芬佩奇(Stephen Page)回应,机器人的普遍使用将各不相同这个世界如何用于它们、将它们用在哪里。在线媒体公司旅游族(TravelZoo)所做到的一项调查找到,有所不同地区的消费者对机器人的接受程度不存在差异。

中国游客最能拒绝接受旅行中由机器人获取服务的点子,而法国和德国游客深感最不适应环境。Prof Page says: “We already know planes are flown by computer, so to a certain degree you can say a robot is flying it with human interaction to provide the safety element.” 佩奇教授回应:“我们早就告诉飞机是由电脑操控飞行中,所以在或许上,你可以说道是一个机器人在驾驶员飞机,同时由人类驾驶员的插手获取安全性确保。” Transport is another sector where jobs are at risk. Rachel Aldred, senior lecturer in transport at Westminster university in London, says driverless buses could improve life for staff and passengers. Past welfare studies found bus driving was stressful and unhealthy because drivers are sedentary. Being a bus conductor, however, was better for health and a less stressful occupation. 另一个工作机会面对出局风险的行业是交通运输业。

坐落于伦敦的威斯敏斯特大学(Westminster university)高级讲师蕾切尔奥尔德雷德(Rachel Aldred)回应,无人驾驶巴士可以教化巴士公司员工和乘客。先前在福利方面的研究找到,驾驶员巴士是一项充满著压力的工作,而且对身体健康危害,因为驾驶员必须久坐。巴士售票员终究是一个更加有益身体健康、压力不那么大的职业。


“Since then we’ve got rid of conductors but kept bus driver jobs,” Ms Aldred says. “So if you’re looking at employee health it is the wrong way round. “自那以来,我们早已出局了售票员,但却保有了巴士司机的工作,”奥尔德雷德说道,“因此,从有益员工身体健康的角度来看,这样做到才是搞反了。“Potentially, having driverless buses opens the opportunity to reinstate those conductor jobs, and to improve service quality to passengers,” she says. “It will also improve employee health.” “无人驾驶巴士有可能让售票员岗位获得完全恢复,同时提高对乘客的服务质量,”她说道,“也可以提高员工的健康状况。

” She says a more negative outcome would be to get rid of the driver as well as the conductor. 她说道,更加有利的结局是司机和售票员双双被出局。That choice could come down to how much money companies can save by employing robots and how unions and workers respond to such changes. 这种自由选择将各不相同用于机器人能为巴士公司省下多少资金,以及工会和劳动者对这些变化做出的反应。But Ms Aldred says automation may even provide more work for people. “Jobs do change all the time, just because you have a technological change doesn’t necessarily lead to a shrinkage in jobs, it is just different skills are required.” 但奥尔德雷德回应,自动化甚至有可能为人们获取更加多工作。

“工作的确无时无刻不出发生变化,意味着是经常出现了一项技术变革不一定不会造成工作机会的增加,只是所需的技能有所不同了。” Prof Page is also optimistic: “There is a role for human creativity, to create more forms of human employment so you’re constantly generating new areas in the job market.” 佩奇教授也所持悲观观点:“人类的创造力可以为自身建构出有更加多低收入形式,因此,可以在低收入市场大大修筑新领域。” Ms Aldred adds that the way some jobs are classified as low skilled and low waged may need to change. Roles in call centres, shops and care require complex skills, for instance. “We need to improve the quality of these jobs, particularly if we’re going to have more of them.” 奥尔德雷德补足说道,一些工作被归类为较低技能、较低薪水的情况有可能必须转变。

例如,呼叫中心、商场及护理的工作就必须简单的技能。“我们必须提高这些工作的质量,尤其是如果要减少这方面低收入的话。” States and education systems, meanwhile, may need to better prepare young people for the future. Infosys, a multinational technology company, last month published a study of youngsters aged 16-25 from nine developed and emerging economies. This found that a third of millennials thought that artificial intelligence would be a big cause of change in their future careers. 与此同时,各国政府以及教育系统有可能必须让年轻人对未来作出更加充份的打算。

上个月,跨国科技公司Infosys公布了一项针对9个繁盛和新兴经济体16-25岁的年轻人的研究,结果找到,三分之一的千禧一代年轻人指出,人工智能将沦为影响他们未来职业生涯的众多变数。As Carl Benedikt Frey, co-director of the Oxford Martin programme on technology and employment, told the FT in a recent interview: “Any loss of equality [through fewer jobs] would be a failure of policy, not technology.” 牛津大学(Oxford)马丁学院技术与低收入项目联席主任卡尔贝内迪克兹弗雷(Carl Benedikt Frey)在最近一次专访中对英国《金融时报》回应:“(工作机会增加带给的)任何不公平都将是政策而非科技的告终。